Marwan Elfitesse

STATION F Head of Startup Programs & Business Services

Marwan Elfitesse is currently Head of Startup Programs and Business services at STATION F, overseeing all 30 programs for the campus including STATION F's in-house programs (Founders, Fighters & FemTech Programs), business resources for STATION F entrepreneurs (VC community, perks etc.) as well as the search for new partners. Prior to STATION F, he was active in the tech industry, with experience at Nimbula in California and Microsoft in France.

Opened in 2017, STATION F is the world's biggest startup campus, in central Paris and is backed by Xavier Niel (Free Telecom, Kima Ventures, 42 coding school). The 51,000m2 campus is the home to over 1.000 startups and welcomes programs from the biggest companies in the world like Facebook, Microsoft or Thales.

At STATION F, startups can find everything necessary to succeed and focus on their projects including offices from Google, AWS, OVH but also workshops and exclusive events featuring International speakers. With Flatmates, its co-living extension, STATION F also offers housing to 600-entrepreneurs. In 2021, STATION F unveiled Launch by STATION F, a first fully-online program dedicated to people who want to start business.

Sam Ghiotti

Habitto Co-Founder, Chief executive officer

Sam brings over 20 years of unique vantage point and global experience in Technology and Finance. Her track record of innovation in finance spans across banking, payments, asset management and insurance across 4 continents. After a decade in operating roles building digital businesses at American Express, First Data and Royal Bank of Scotland, Sam spent 10 years as a venture investor at Anthemis Group backing world-class fintech entrepreneurs, from early stage to exit.She then moved to Singapore to run Singlife, a leading insurtech business which merged with Aviva Singapore in 2021 through a S$3.2bln landmark transaction. She is now building her next venture in Japan to help a generation save, invest, and protect their money.

She is a Non-Executive Director at the Singapore International Chamber of Commerce and at Bridgetown-3, the SPAC formed by Richard Li's Pacific Century Group and Thiel Capital and an advisor to a number of fintechs. Consistently recognised as top cohort of women in finance and tech, Sam is a passionate steward of diversity and inclusion a mission critical agenda she spearheads with a credible voice as investor, executive, entrepreneur, and board member.

We are a mobile platform to help people save, invest and protect their money, powered by tech and delivered by humans. When it comes to money, human interaction is key to drive trust and help make appropriate choices: that's why we provide genuine, independent financial advice, backed by proven multichannel technology.We hold a New Intermediary Licence which allows us to distribute simple financial products such as savings, cards, mutual funds and life insurance to retail customers. We work with respected financial institutions (Banks, Asset Managers and Insurance companies) to source suitable financial products which are then made available through our mobile platform and via our own financial advisors.

The Habitto team blends global fintech expertise with local domain experience and is backed by global and local investors.

Tina Cheng

Cherubic Ventures Managing Partner

Tina is the managing partner at Cherubic Ventures.Tina leads Cherubic's overall investment and portfolio management operation globally. She's one of the earliest members of Cherubic and has led deals including Calm, Hahow, and Pinkoi.Prior to joining Cherubic Ventures, Tina worked in Cisco's global distribution team and later on co-founded an education startup in Asia.Tina held an MBA degree from UCLA Anderson.

Founded in 2014, Cherubic Ventures is a global seed-stage fund investing in pre-product/market fit companies. We are eager to partner with the most talented founders audacious enough to make the world a better place, and support them from the very beginning of their journey to the growth stage.Our team sits across San Francisco, Shanghai, and Taipei. Some of our notable portfolio companies include Hims & Hers, Calm, Flexport, 91APP, Paidy, and Tezign.

To date, Cherubic has a global network of more than 150 portfolio companies, as well as 500+ founders, advisors, and institutional investors, allowing us to provide top-tier support for founders on their startup journey.

Dr. Felix Moesner

Consulate of Switzerland in Osaka,Swissnex in Japan Consul, CEO, Head of Post

With a PhD in robotics, MBA and MSc from ETH Zurich, the University of Tokyo and MIT, Dr.Moesner acquired professional experiences in governmental, private, and academic sectors at Swissnex in Boston & New York, Swissnex in China, the Embassy of Switzerland in Tokyo, CreditSuisse Life Insurance Japan, Synpulse, the Kanagawa Academy of Science & Technology, Toshiba Corporation Japan, and Egon Zehnder International Zurich. As Consul of the Consulate of Switzerland in Osaka and CEO of Swissnex in Japan, Dr. Moesner promotes the exchange of knowledge, ideas and talent in education, research, innovation, and art-science by interfacing between governments, universities, R&D institutions, and companies.

Besides his professional duties, he also engages in the Swiss Society of the Kansai and the Kansai Association of Switzerland-Japan. Previously in Japan, he established and headed the Science and Technology Office at the Embassy of Switzerland in Tokyo, chaired the Science & Technology Diplomatic Circle Tokyo and contributed to the Swiss Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Japan (SCCIJ) in the executive committee.

The brand-new Consulate of Switzerland in Osaka is a member of the Swissnex network for education, research, and innovation. It is the sixth location, joining Swissnex in the USA in Boston, New York and San Francisco, China in Shanghai, India in Bangalore, and Brazil in Rio de Janeiro. All located at some of the world's most innovative regions. And it's not by chance that the new Consulate is in Osaka, as here we have all the ingredients for a powerful innovation ecosystem, and an atmosphere of open-mindedness. Our increased presence in the Kansai region is also connected with the Expo 2025 Osaka, one of the first large-scale post-pandemic events.

Fabian Tan

Embassy of the Republic of Singapore in Tokyo, Commercial Section
Enterprise Singapore, Regional Director (Japan)

Prior to his current appointment, Fabian was the Assistant Vice President for the Conglomerates Account Group and the Japan & Korea Desk at the Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB), which is the lead government agency for planning and executing strategies to enhance Singapore's position as a global business centre. Fabian was also responsible for EDB's collaboration with key Japanese and Korean partners, such as the embassies, banks and consultancies, partnering them to engage the Japanese and Korean business communities in Singapore.

Currently, Mr Fabian Tan is the Counsellor (Commercial) at the Singapore Embassy in Tokyo. He is also the Regional Director in the Northeast Asia and Oceania Group at the Enterprise Singapore (ESG). ESG is the government agency championing enterprise development. Fabian works with other government agencies, trade associations and corporate partners to drive the internationalisation of Singaporean companies in the Japanese and Korean markets. He is also active in engaging Japanese and Korean incubators and accelerators, VC and PE funds to anchor their presence in Singapore, as part of building the Singaporean startup ecosystem.

Enterprise Singapore is the Singapore government agency championing enterprise development. It also supports the growth of Singapore as a hub for global trading and startups. The agency attracts global commodities traders to establish their global or Asian home base in Singapore. Today, Singapore is a leading global trading hub with a complete ecosystem for the energy, agri-commodities and metals & minerals trading clusters. Singapore is also home to many global enterprises, startups and investors that operate in its robust pro-enterprise environment.

Enterprise Singapore builds trust in Singapore's products and services through quality and standards. Renowned for their dedication to quality and innovation, Singapore companies make ideal business partners. With Enterprise Singapore's global network in over 35 locations spanning many developed and emerging markets, it connects businesses with relevant Singapore companies for their business expansion.

Adam Claydon-Platt

Global DX Inc. COO & Director

Adam is Director of Global DX, an Osaka-based boutique innovation consultancy, facilitating cross-border collaboration between Japanese corporations, cities, foreign governments and startups. Adam has 15+ years business experience in Japan, & has been running a recruitment business since 2007, investing in solar and wind farms since 2015, supporting startups since 2018, & Japanese corporate open innovation since 2019.

Global DX is an Osaka-based boutique innovation consultancy, providing Japanese companies and cities with the capacity to become global innovation hubs. Global DX provides access to the world's most cutting-edge startups, cross-cultural (bilingual) PoC design, hands-on facilitation through implementation, and market entry support for startups. Global DX's clients include foreign governments & startups, & Japanese corporations & cities. Global DX's vision is to make cross-border collaboration with foreign startups accessible to all Japanese corporates, to accelerate rapid digital transformation (DX) in Japan, to contribute to the realization of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's), and a thriving, sustainable, global economy.

Tomonori Izumi

for Startups, Inc. Acceleration Dept. Public Affairs Strategy Office Office Manager

At university, he majored in sports psychology/exercise physiology and studied the mind and body of humans. After working in the logistics industry as a business improvement consultant and in the financial industry, he led the digital marketing/business development at GMO Internet Group as a manager. Later, at NetJinzai Bank, Ltd. (now for Startups, Inc.) in the start-up period, he was involved in start-up support business focusing on “human resources” support together with a prominent VC. After experiencing a listing on Mothers in about three and a half years, he established the Public affairs Strategy Office to build a platform for industry-academia-government collaboration. Currently, he is working with the central and local governments to promote new industry creation projects and further strengthen Japan'scompetitiveness.

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "SHIFT(x)" Project General Advisory(2021)
Mentoring member of Startup Ecosystem, Exective Advisor of Osaka(2022)

Our company,"for Startups" has a mission of "(Together) to the center of evolution", and under the vision of "for Startups", we provide entrepreneurship support and career change support, including internet / IoT connections, real business fields such as deep tech. Strategic financial support for startups and venture companies in collaboration with leading domestic ventures, operation of the information platform "STARTUP DB" specializing in growth industry areas, and industry based on a co-creation model with large companies and governments We will continue to strengthen the ecosystem.

Akinori Ito

Docquity Holdings Pte. Ltd. Chief Officer - North East Asia

Akinori joined Docquity in October 2022 as a secondment from ITOCHU Corporation, where he led the execution of its investment to Docquity. Before that, he was a VP in OUE Lippo Healthcare Limited from 2018 to 2020, Singapore-based company for the hospital management in South East Asia. In Japan, he was seconded to the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry for 2 years since 2014, and promoted internationalization of Japanese healthcare industry. He also experienced investment & medical devices trading, since he graduated from Ritsumeikan University and joined ITOCHU.

After winning the award of Hack Osaka in 2017, Docquity has shown the rapid growth and became Southeast Asia's largest trusted professional community of healthcare professionals with more than 330,000 doctors. Our vision is to connect healthcare professionals to build healthier lives around the world at scale. Docquity helps healthcare professionals to be more collaborative, productive and impactful and partners with companies to reach, educate healthcare professionals and gain insights on them.

Indranil Roychowdhury

Docquity Holdings Pte. Ltd. Co-Founder and CEO

Indranil is Co-Founder of Docquity and a passionate product management professional. He has 17 years professional experience in across Southeast Asia, Korea and Japan in terms of the sales of IT services mainly for telecom operators. Holds an MBA from University of Chicago Booth.

After winning the award of Hack Osaka in 2017, Docquity has shown the rapid growth and became Southeast Asia's largest trusted professional community of healthcare professionals with more than 330,000 doctors. Our vision is to connect healthcare professionals to build healthier lives around the world at scale. Docquity helps healthcare professionals to be more collaborative, productive and impactful and partners with companies to reach, educate healthcare professionals and gain insights on them.

Harutoshi Imamura

Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. World Expo Office Director

Born in 1986 and raised in Osaka. He is the director of the World Expo Office at Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. which promotes work related to the Expo 2025 Osaka, Kansai, Japan. Mainly conducts research work and various projects related to the "co-creation" concept of this Expo.

In addition to his current position, he has also worked for the Osaka Prefectural Government and the Japan Expo Association. During his time at the Japan Expo Association, he was engaged in logo mark formulation work and the launch of the TEAM EXPO 2025 program. The keyword for the Expo of this year is "people." Please join us for a new action.

  • - Projects involved -
  • ・Legacy co-ceation team leader, EXPO co-creation office
  • ・Advisory for the Cabinet Secretariat and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry on Expo related projects.
  • ・Executive committee member of co-creation activities related to the Expo, such as demo!expo and TEAM EXPO FES.
  • ・Member of Osaka Smart City Partners Forum (OSPF) Company, etc.

Established in 1970 as a joint venture by 27 companies of the Mitsubishi Group to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the founding of Mitsubishi in anticipation of the coming full-fledged information society. As a think tank with "independence, interdisciplinarity, and futurism" as its basic principles, has participated in various projects in Japan and abroad, contributing to the resolution of issues faced by clients and society.

  • Mission: To solve social issues and co-create a prosperous and sustainable future
  • Vision: Continue to question the future and pioneer innovation
  • Commitment: Study, Consilienceology, stance, challenge, reality

Hiroshi Oshima

Optibus Ltd. Japan Country Manager

More than 20 years of software solution, and country management experience. Previously, served as the country manager for Diligent , and held roles at SAP, Oracle, Blackboard KK, Astea (IFS), Sophos and Tokyo Electrons.

Optibus is an integrated cloud solution that enables transportation operational planning through AI and optimization algorithms. Already used in transportation operational planning operations in over 1,000 regions worldwide, Optibus supports modern operational initiatives by improving convenience and quality of service while reducing costs and emissions.

Tsuneaki Sakata

1.BiocK:Vice Chairperson of the committee, Executive Supervisor,
2.NPO Kinki Bio-industry Development Organization:Chairman

After graduating from Osaka University and its graduate school, he joined Shionogi & Co., Ltd. After engaging in research and development work, he has been involved in open innovation-related work. Currently, he serves as Chairman of the NPO Kinki Bio-industry Development Organization and Vice-Chairperson and Executive Supervisor of Biocommunity Kansai, working for the development of Japan's life science industry. He also serves as President of the All Japan Biocommunity Liaison Committee, Advisor to the Biomedical Research Division of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), and Vice Chairman of the Life Science Promotion Committee of the Osaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

Biocommunity Kansai (BiocK):
Based on the BioStrategy, BiocK in Japan was established in July 2021 and is a global Biocommunity that was certified by Goverment in April 2022. The vision is spreading a bio-first approach to build a Global Biocommunity and realize a sustainable society.

NPO Kinki Bio-industry Development Organization:
Established in March 1985 that aims to achieve a comfortable and vibrant society by conducting projects related to bioindustry promotion, maintaining and improving people's health, and protecting the environment of society, and so on.


Ningen Inc.

Born in Tsuruhashi, Tennoji-ku, Osaka, in 1981. He is the youngest son but was named Yo-ichi, meaning "the first". He founded Team Ningen in 2000 and established Ningen Inc. in 2011, producing unique projects with "the power to get one's own way" in the spirit of "Baki", a Japanese comic. He has begun new activities to boost the Osaka-Kansai Japan Expo on his own since its bid in 2018 and launched "demo!expo" in September 2021, a team that creates a mechanism to liven up the Expo in the whole city.

With the motto of "Thinking Funny and Weird," Ningen Inc. is an Osaka-based content production company that creates unique expressions with out-of-the-box. To meet the expectations of companies and individuals who want to solve problems in exciting ways, we face with a high motivation to plan and execute advertising, promotional measures, and branding strategies using various methods including websites, graphics, video, and events.

Takashi Kawaguchi

Kyoto Wisdom Industry Creation Center Startup Promotion Department Deputy General Manager

He started to work for the Kyoto municipal government in 2011 After working for an advertising planning company. He has devoted himself to promoting traditional industries and the establishment of a start-up support center. During a two-year secondment to JETRO (Osaka and Hanoi, Vietnam), he supported the overseas expansion of Japanese SMEs (mainly in the food industry). Currently, he is on secondment from Kyoto City Hall to Kyoto Wisdom Industry Creation Center. He is in charge of promoting the Kyoto Startup Ecosystem and the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe(as known as 'Keihanshin') Ecosystem Collaboration Project, among others. Fifth generation member of NEDO SSA.

Kyoto Wisdom Industry Creation Center is a general incorporated association that aims to develop and revitalize the Kyoto economy by supporting the creation of innovations through the exchange and fusion of wisdom. The activities include the development of an environment that empowers startup activities and industry-academia collaboration with the industrial world. Regarding startup support, we serve as the secretariat of the Kyoto Startup Ecosystem Promotion Council. It promotes the ecosystem that fosters entrepreneurs by bringing together Kyoto Prefecture, Kyoto City, economic organizations, financial institutions, and universities to enable effective collaboration among other organizations and us.

Yuichi Saito

KOBE CITY GOVERNMENT/Manager, New Business Promotion Division

Joined Kobe City Government in 2011. After working in the tax department and public relations department (city promotion and media relations), transferred to a city bank, where mainly engaged in start-up support and corporate sales. After returning to Kobe City Government in 2021, joined the New Industry Division, a startup support organization within the City Hall, where he was involved in administrative tasks such as hiring outside specialists, budgeting, and overall management. The role of the project manager is to serve as a bridge between the public and private sectors, including consortium management, event planning, and project management, in order to promote the formation of a startup ecosystem in the Hyogo-Kobe area.

Kobe, with a population of over 1.5 million, is blessed with a rich natural environment, with Mt. Rokko and the satoyama area in close proximity to the city center, and faces the calm Seto Inland Sea. Since the opening of the port in the Meiji era (1868-1912), Kobe has developed as an international city, establishing its own brand by adopting a new spirit and a variety of cultures. In recent years, the city has been promoting urban development with an eye to the future, including redevelopment of urban areas and waterfront areas, and the improvement of each station's base of operations. In 2016, the city began providing full-scale support for startups, and in 2020, along with Kyoto and Osaka, it will be selected as a "Global Hub City" promoted by the Japanese government.

Kenichi Saito

Sozo Ventures, Senior Director

As a Senior Director, Ken focuses on strategy, investment initiatives, business development and educational activities. He spent over 21 years at MUFG Bank, Japan's top financial group where, as Managing Director of the DX Office, he led corporate innovation activities globally. In 2009, he was stationed in Singapore for three years, managing partnerships with banks in India, Vietnam and the Philippines. From 2015 to 2020, he led MUFG's Global Innovation Team in the Bay Area, where he was responsible for start-up investments and business development, especially in fintech. Ken believes the innovations he developed at MUFG can be an engine of growth for large companies all over the world, which is why he joined Sozo. Ken received an MBA from the University of Michigan, Ross School of Business, and also graduated from Waseda University with a Bachelor's Degree in Engineering in Electronics, Information and Communication.

Sozo Ventures is a leading global acceleration and expansion venture capital firm with deep connections across the venture, startup, and corporate landscapes both in the US and internationally. Our mission is to create a major impact on a global scale. We also guide iconic start-ups through Japan's market to maximize their global reach and impact.

Noriaki Sakamoto

The University of Tokyo Edge Capital Partners Co., Ltd. Partner/Managing Director, COO and Board Director

After graduating from the University of Tokyo, and then working for the Faculty of Economics, he subsequently joined the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). After retiring from METI in 2008, he was Vice President of a distribution company and later, received an MBA from Columbia University. His next position was working for McKinsey & Company, whereupon he joined UTEC in August 2014. He has made many lead investments in seed and early stage startups.

The University of Tokyo Edge Capital Partners is a venture capital firm that invests in venture companies founded in April 2004 as a "technology transfer-related business operator" approved by the University of Tokyo. With the intention of returning the university's "knowledge" to society through venture companies, the partners invest in venture companies that utilize outstanding intellectual property and human resources.

Chika Minami

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Director for Startup Policy

Born in 1990 and raised in Osaka. Graduated from Kyoto University Faculty of Law and Law School, passed the bar exam in 2014, joined Nishimura & Asahi in 2016, joined ZeLo in 2018. Her main practice areas as an attorney include startup support, rulemaking/public affairs, Fintech, M&A, general corporate, and crisis management/compliance. She is a director of Public Meets Innovation. Author of "Strategy and Practice of Rulemaking" (Shojihomu, 2021), etc. Winner of ALB Women in Law Awards 2021 - Innovator of the Year. After studying in the United States (University of Pennsylvania Law School, Visiting Scholar at the University of California, Berkeley), she has been in her current position since November 2022.

In order to achieve Japan's economic growth, it is essential that more startups which create new technologies and ideas and become drivers of growth succeed. METI supports more startups so that they can grow to greater heights.

Maki Takada

Managing Director, Deloitte Tohmatsu Group (Deloitte Japan)
Fellow, Deloitte Tohmatsu Institute in Deloitte Japan
A&A Planning, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu LLC

After working for an IT solution service company and other companies, She serves advisory and implementation of internal controls over financial reporting, digital and IT governance, and risk management, besides integrated audit, in the audit firm. She also supports the creation of innovation and startup enterprises through academy, industry, and government collaboration in regions in the country. Furthermore, She promotes initiatives to solve social issues, such as community development and revitalization, and food loss and waste, with the perspective of digital and women's participation. Director, OMY Area Management Association (NPO for the revitalization of one of the main business districts in Tokyo)

Deloitte Tohmatsu Group is the largest professional firm in Japan with a total of 17,000 members working for the Group. It is composed of Deloitte Tohmatsu LLC, which is responsible for the Group’s governance and management, as well as five Businesses - Audit & Assurance, Risk Advisory, Consulting, Financial Advisory, and Tax and Legal - and Corporate functions. At each Business, professionals offer their expertise while working collaboratively with others to create new value and bring about sophisticated solutions to social challenges. Our goal is to contribute to envisioning and driving forward the transformation required for the entire economic society, not merely for our own clients.

Hiro Morishita

Panasonic Holdings Corporation
Platform Division & Kansai External Relations And EXPO Promotion Office
Business Developer & UX Designer

Graduated from Keio University, Faculty of Environment and Information Studies / Panasonic Corporation / After producing mobile services and overseas marketing for audio and video categories, he has been involved in a wide range of businesses from software to hardware on a global basis. Then, as a marketing and creative director, he launched “Technics” (2014), a brand known for its HiFi audio and DJ turntables, and “HomeX” (2018), an integrated platform business for living where home appliances and IoT work together. Currently, while promoting value creation in the field of living as a UX designer, he is also working as the digital/virtual theme leader of the Panasonic Expo project. He enjoys playing basketball and creating virtual worlds.

Since our founding in 1918 we have been working to "improve and enhance society," and "advance the culture of the world." We will continue to create value by confronting social issues head-on with the hope of creating an "ideal society" filled with both material and spiritual wealth.​

Daichi Hiroya

Kansai Innovation Initiative
Area Coordinator

After graduating from university, I joined a life insurance company. Then, in April 2022, I joined the Urban Innovation Institute, the Area support organization of the Kansai Innovation Initiative (KSII). I am in charge of coordinating the collaboration between university-originated startups and industry in Kansai area, and I am also in charge of project planning and event planning as a secretariat of KSII. Born in Hokkaido, Japan.

Kansai Innovation Initiative (KSII) is a program adopted by METI(the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as a project to create an industry-academia fusion center. KSII consists of 78 participating organizations based on industry, government, and academia in Kansai area, economic organizations, financial institutions, local governments, etc. Target is building up the ecosystem based on the above organizations for continuous growth of a university-originated startups.

Tomoya Wakamatsu


Graduated from Osaka University (Master's degree). After working as a mechanical designer at a manufacturer, I started my own business as a Registered Smaller Enterprise Consultant and engaged in management support for small and micro enterprises. Parallel to this, I joined Academic Industry Research Inc. and promoted industry-government-academia cooperation and start-up support. In June 2020, I founded DENSE Ltd. as an Osaka University venture. In addition, I am the president of Photo Soni Life Technology Co., Ltd., the Industry-Academia-Government Collaboration Coordinator of Osaka Medical and Pharmaceutical University, and the KSII Area Coordinator.

We are trying to disseminate our know-how and cutting-edge simulation models developed at Osaka University into practical scenarios. Our vision is “to optimize all powder handling processes in industry by using simulation-based science, and build a safe and sustainable society”. We seek innovation for high-value-added products, cost reduction, and energy saving, to help create and support environmentally-friendly industries.

Hideki Sakai

professor, Graduate School of Human Life and Ecology, Osaka Metropolitan University

2020-Proposing a safe and comfortable lighting environment
2014-Evaluation of surface properties of materials, development of colorimetric technology
2005-Development and evaluation of highly reflective materials for solar heat considering the urban environment (heat island countermeasures)

Lifestyles are rapidly changing and diversifying against the backdrop of the remarkable development and sophistication of science and technology and the rapid informatization. Problems related to food, living space, mental health, etc. are increasing more and more, and in a mature society with a declining birthrate and an aging population, there is a demand for accurate responses to various life issues. The Graduate School of Human Life and Ecology, Osaka Metropolitan University conducts research and education with the aim of cultivating human resources who will be responsible for clarifying and responding to these new life issues.